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作为学生自我塑造的高等教育


作者:   2020年03月16日


                            作为学生自我塑造的高等教育*

                                   [英]西蒙·马金森

  [摘 要] 基于高等教育的总体特征,高等教育应当着重关注学生的反思能动性,应当被理解为学生自我塑造的过程。在探讨阿马蒂亚·森、福柯以及教育心理学中能动性和自我塑造的自由的概念的基础上,反思儒家思想中通过治学修身、德国的教化思想、杜威和美国实用主义等观点,并进一步探讨了高等教育中学生自我塑造的显著特征,包括教学的作用、沉浸在知识中的重要性,以及学生的流动作为加速自我塑造的触发因素等。并将高等教育作为学生自我塑造的过程这一结论,与其他一般性的高等教育的基础理论进行了比较,如人力资本理论、社会地位投资或高等教育作为消费的理论等。

  [关键词] 自我塑造;自我培养;个体发展;教化

  [作者简介] 西蒙·马金森,牛津大学教育系教授,《高等教育(Higher Education)》主编 (牛津 OX2 6PY)

  * 本文系作者在“北京大学高端学术讲学计划”同名讲座的基础上完成,由北京大学教育学院研究生王晓娜翻译,蒋凯、许心审校。

                 Higher Education as Student Self-Formation

                           [UK]Simon Marginson

  Abstract: Higher education, according to its general features, is supposed to attach importance to students' reflective agency, which should be understood as their self-formation. This paper, based on the discussion of the notion of agency and self-forming freedom in Amartya Sen and Michel Foucault's research and in educational psychology, reviews Confucian self-cultivation through learning, Bildung in Germany, and pragmatism by Dewey and other American scholars, and analyzes the distinctive features of student self-formation in higher education, including the role of teaching, the central importance of immersion in knowledge, and mobility as a trigger for accelerated self-formation. The author concludes that higher education is a process of student self-formation, and compares higher education as student self-formation with other general theories of higher education, such as investment in human capital, investment in social status, and the notion of higher education as consumption.

  Key words: self-formation; self-cultivation; individual development; enlightenment

  Author: Simon Marginson, professor of the Department of Education, University of Oxford,and Editor-in-chief of Higher Education (Oxford OX2 6PY)