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国际大规模教育评价的逻辑反思


作者:   2020年03月16日


                            国际大规模教育评价的逻辑反思

                                         刘磊明

  [摘 要] 国际大规模教育评价是当前教育领域不容忽视的文化现象。作为一种教育评价形态,它在评估对象、施测范围、测评内容、测评学段、实务操作等方面呈现出其特征。方法论上,它悬置、排除和放弃抽象物,使用数据和符号作为描述教育的语言,涉及“关系”的推论,注重量化变项的评比。论述国际大规模评价的价值效应,存在科学化和非科学化两种取向分庭抗礼。但是,罔顾教育中不可测量的部分而论“好”教育是危险的。人的教育与受教育状况成为数字统计的客体、科学评价的对象,也意味着削弱人(部分人)的主体性。没有哪一个国家的教育能够成为其他国家的样板。务必警惕教育测评设计者的费边策略。透过对已有现象的概述、理证和反思,有助于理性看待国际大规模评价。

  [关键词] 国际大规模评价;跨国教育评价;国际测评;学业成就

  [作者简介] 刘磊明,华南师范大学现代教育研究与开发中心讲师 (广州 510631)

  A Probe into the Logic of International Large-Scale Assessments in Education

                             Liu Leiming

  Abstract: International large-scale assessments in education are an important cultural event in education. As a form of educational assessments, they have their characteristics in terms of the people given the assessments, as well as the scope, content, educational stage, and operation of the assessments. Methodologically, they suspend, exclude and abandon abstractions, and use data and symbols as the language to describe education. They involve inferences from "relationships" and stress the assessment of quantitative variables; scientific and non-scientific approaches are adopted to probe into their value effects. However, it is dangerous to identify a "good" education through assessments by neglecting the unmeasurable part of education. When the education people received becomes the object of numerical analysis and scientific evaluation, it means weakening the subjective role of people (or a certain part of people)。 In fact, no country's education can become a model of other countries. It is necessary to be alert to the Fabian strategy from educational assessment designers. A general survey and self-reflection of the existing phenomenon helps us rationally understand international large-scale assessments in education.

  Key words: international large-scale assessments; cross-national educational evaluation; international monitoring; academic achievements

  Author: Liu Leiming, lecturer of the Research and Development Center of Contemporary Education, South China Normal University (Guangzhou 510631)